Arsip Kategori: Bukti sejarah natal 25 Desember

Agustus, Herodes, Kirenius: Penanda historis kelahiran Yesus Kristus/ Isa Al-Masih

Disinformasi

Tanggal dari Alkitab tidak cocok dengan sejarah.

Lukas menyatakan bahwa kelahiran Yesus terjadi pada tahun ketika Kaisar Agustus memerintahkan sensus penduduk dengan tujuan pajak. Hal ini terjadi saat Herodes jadi raja Yudea dan Kirenius jadi gubernur Siria.

Tapi Herodes meninggal dunia tahun 4 SM. Saat itu, gubernur Siria bukan Kirenius. Sejarawan Roma tidak menyebut sensus, tapi sejarawan Yahudi yang bernama Josephus menyebut sensus yang terjadi 6 tahun setelah tahun yang dianggap sebagai tahun kelahiran Yesus.

Sebenarnya…..

Tanggal dari Alkitab cocok dengan sejarah dan artifak arkeologis.

Pembahasan

Herodes mati tahun 4 SM, sedangkan Kaisar Agustus memerintahkan sensus penduduk pada tahun 8 SM, menurut Res Gestae Divi Augusti yang ditulis oleh Emperor Augustus pada tahun 14 M.

res-gestae
Salinan Res Gestae Divi Augusti di dekat makam Kaisar Agustus di Galatia, Turki.

MIT dalam situsnya di MIT.edu menyarankan terjemahan sebagai berikut:

8. When I was consul the fifth time (29 B.C.E.), I increased the number of patricians by order of the people and senate. I read the roll of the senate three times, and in my sixth consulate (28 B.C.E.) I made a census of the people with Marcus Agrippa as my colleague. I conducted a lustrum, after a forty-one year gap, in which lustrum were counted 4,063,000 heads of Roman citizens. Then again, with consular imperium I conducted a lustrum alone when Gaius Censorinus and Gaius Asinius were consuls (8 B.C.E.), in which lustrum were counted 4,233,000 heads of Roman citizens. And the third time, with consular imperium, I conducted a lustrum with my son Tiberius Caesar as colleague, when Sextus Pompeius and Sextus Appuleius were consuls (14 A.C.E.), in which lustrum were counted 4,937,000 of the heads of Roman citizens. By new laws passed with my sponsorship, I restored many traditions of the ancestors, which were falling into disuse in our age, and myself I handed on precedents of many things to be imitated in later generations.

 

Kirenius menduduki jabatan dumviir, seperti yang ditunjukkan oleh prasasti Pisidia.

Prasasti Pisidia tentang Kirenius (Quirinius)1
Prasasti Pisidia tentang Kirenius (Quirinius)1

Inskripsi ini menunjukkan bahwa Kirenius adalah seorang Dumviir atau penguasa kembar, yaitu: dua orang yang memerintah satu wilayah.

Pada waktu Kirenius di Siria, Kirenius adalah dumviir bersama dengan Varus, gubernur Siria.

Lukas menggunakan kata ηγεμονευοντος ‘hegemoneuontos’, yang berarti: orang yang menghegemoni. Kata ini menunjukkan Kirenius menghegemonis propinsi yang kata itu dipimpin gubernur Varus. Sehingga, Siria punya penguasa kembar (Duumvir), saat Kirenius datang ke Siria pada tahun 5-4 BC sebagai seorang utusan langsung kaisar Roma. Lukas hanya menyebut Kirenius dalam Lukas 2: 2. Ini menyiratkan Kirenius nampak lebih dominan dalam hegemoninya atas Siria.

Sensus Agustus, kematian Herodes Agung, dan hegemonis Kirenius atas Siria mengindikasikan bahwa Isa Al-Masih alias Yesus Kristus lahir pada suatu hari di antara tahun 5-4 BC.

  • 8 SM: Kaisar Agustus memerintahkan sensus.
  • 7 SM: Roda birokrasi mulai bergerak untuk melaksanakan perintah kaisar menyensur wilayah yang meliputi Eropa, Afrika, dan Asia.
  • 6 SM: Sentius Saturninus mulai melakukan sensus di Siria menjelang masa jabatannya berakhir.
  • 5-4 SM: Kirenius melanjutkan sensus yang dimulai oleh Sentius Saturnius dan menuntaskannya.
  • April 4 SM: Herodes Agung meninggal dunia

Isa/ Yesus lahir pada tanggal 25 Desember. Maka, Isa lahir tanggal 25 Desember 5 SM Kalender Julian.

Simpulan

  1. Tanggal berdasarkan Alkitab cocok dengan sejarah dan artifak arkeologis.
  2. Sensus Kirenius pertama pada tahun 5-4 SM tidak ada hubungannya dengan sensus Kirenius kedua tahun 6 M.

Bibliography

1http://codexbezae.perso.sfr.fr/selene/images/quirinius.jpg; access 19/3/2015 16:58

2http://www.romancoins.info/varus-syriab2.JPG ; access 21/3/2015 10:54

3http://www.gutenberg.org/files/2848/2848-h/2848-h.htm#link72HCH0005 akses 21/3/2015 11:40 => Josephus, Antiquity XVII, Chapter 5, Paragraph 2

Now Quintilius Varus was at this time at Jerusalem, being sent to succeed Saturninus as president of Syria, and was come as an assessor to Herod, who had desired his advice in his present affairs; and as they were sitting together, Antipater came upon them, without knowing any thing of the matter; so he came into the palace clothed in purple. The porters indeed received him in, but excluded his friends. And now he was in great disorder, and presently understood the condition he was in, while, upon his going to salute his father, he was repulsed by him, who called him a murderer of his brethren, and a plotter of destruction against himself, and told him that Varus should be his auditor and his judge the very next day; so he found that what misfortunes he now heard of were already upon him, with the greatness of which he went away in confusion; upon which his mother and his wife met him, [which wife was the daughter of Antigonus, who was king of the Jews before Herod,] from whom he learned all circumstances which concerned him, and then prepared himself for his trial.

4http://self.gutenberg.org/articles/Duumviri, access 21/3/2015 11:08

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Surat Calvin buktikan Calvin memelihara Natal

Banyak orang mengira, Calvin anti Natal 25 Desember, karena sebagian dari kaum anti-Natal 25 Desember mengklaim diri sebagai Calvinist.

Kenyataannya, surat Calvin tanggal 2 Januari 1551 justru menunjukkan Calvin juga memelihara Natal seperti yang biasa orang lakukan (lihat yang diberi warna merah). Orang pada masa Calvin merayakan Natal pada tanggal 25 Desember. Maka, klausa “seperti yang biasa kamu lakukan” (as you are wont to do) merujuk ke Natal 25 Desember.

Signifikansi surat ini adalah:

  • Bukti materiil bahwa Calvin tidak termasuk golongan anti-Natal 25 Desember.
  • Klaim bahwa Calvin adalah anti-Natal terbukti bertentangan dengan bukti.

 

Geneva, 2nd January 1551.

I desire you, my dear Haller, not to measure my affection for you by my not writing to you and to our friend Musculus, of late, to lighten the domestic affliction under which you both labored. There is no need for my occupying many words in expressing how anxious I was about your danger, from the time that I heard of your houses being visited by the plague. But as this remembrance should not be more pleasing to kindhearted and considerate men than the duty of writing, I trust that when I inform you that my silence did not by any means arise from neglect, I shall fully satisfy you both. The reason why I did not write you is this: a report lately reached this place regarding your calamity, but I could not accurately ascertain the extent of its progress. Accordingly, I did not venture to take any active measures; I preferred having recourse to prayer; this I knew both to be more necessary for you, and to be desired by you.

Besides the abolition of the feast-days here has given grievous offense to some of your people, and it is likely enough that much unpleasant talk has been circulating among you. I am pretty certain, also, that I get the credit of being the author of the whole matter, both among the malevolent and the ignorant. But as I can solemnly testify that it was accomplished without my knowledge, and without my desire, so I resolved from the first; rather to weaken malice by silence, than be over-solicitous about my defense. Before I ever entered the city, there were no festivals but the Lord’s day. Those celebrated by you were approved of by the same public decree by which Farel and I were expelled; and it was rather extorted by the tumultuous violence of the ungodly, than decreed according to the order of law. Since my recall, I have pursued the moderate course of keeping Christ’s birth-day as you are wont to do. But there were extraordinary occasions of public prayer on other days; the shops were shut in the morning, and every one returned to his several calling after dinner. There were, however, in the meanwhile, certain inflexible individuals who did not comply with the common custom from some perverse malice or other. Diversity would not be tolerated in a rightly constituted church: even for citizens not to live on good terms with one another, would beget mistrust among strangers. I exhorted the Senate to remove this disagreement in future by a proper remedy. And indeed, I lauded, at the same time, in express terms, the moderation which they had hitherto exercised. I afterwards heard of the abrogation, just as a perfect stranger would. Would that had acted less ambitiously on former occasions! For feast-days might have been abolished in that entire province. In order that those four might return to their old condition and former privileges, he contended as keenly against all the French-speaking pastors as if he had been acting for the good of the Church. You would have said that Victor was doing battle with the Orientals in behalf of his Easter. When I once asked him why circumcision had a right to more honor than the death of Christ, he was compelled to be silent. But let us forget the past. I am satisfied with having indicated briefly the cause of so sudden a change among us. Although I have neither been the mover nor instigator to it, yet, since it has so happened, I am not sorry for it. And if you knew the state of our Church as well as I do, you would not hesitate to subscribe to my judgment. Let me say this, however, that if I had got my choice, I should not have decided in favor of what has now been agreed upon. Yet there is no reason why men should be so much provoked, if we use our liberty as the edification of the Church demands; just as, on the contrary, it is not fair to take a prejudice against our custom.

Adieu, very excellent sir and brother, deserving of my hearty regard. Salute your colleagues, I pray you, and Mr. Nicolas Zerkinden, in my name. My brethren salute you and those aforementioned, very heartily. May the Lord by his Spirit rule over you, preserve you, and bless you in all things.

Amen.
John Calvin.

(John Calvin, Selected Works of John Calvin, Tracts and Letters, Jules Bonnet, Ed., David Constable, Trans., Vol. 5, Letters, Part 2, 1545-1553, pp. 299, 300.)


Bibliografi

5http://www.rbvincent.com/BibleStudies/calvinxmas.htm; akses 5/5/2015 20:34

Khotbah Natal Martin Luther (1530) buktikan Luther peringati & rayakan Natal

Tiap menjelang Natal 25 Desember, kaum anti-Natal 25 Desember punya tradisi untuk menyebarkan disinformasi mengenai Natal. Satu dari ribuan disinformasi itu adalah desas-desus bahwa Martin Luther, Bapak Protestantisme, tidak memperingati dan tidak merayakan Natal 25 Desember.

Berikut ini khotbah Martin Luther pada kebaktian/ misa Natal 25 Desember 1530.1 Khotbah ini bukti bahwa Martin Luther memperingati dan merayakan Natal serta meyakini bahwa Natal adalah hari lahir Yesus Kristus/ Isa Al-Masih. Warna merah tebal berasal dari saya untuk menggarisbawahi poin-poin yang paling relevan dengan blog ini.


 

Sermon on the Afternoon of Christmas Day
Luke 2:1-14, December 25, 1530

Martin Luther

You have heard today the story from the Gospel of St. Luke of how it came to pass that our Lord Christ was born and then also the message of the angel, who announced who the boy was who was born.  Now we shall go on and take up the message of the angel.  So for today you have heard only that the child was born and that he is the Lord and Savior.  Thus we spoke of the story, how it unfolded, and who the persons in it were.  This article is so high that even today it is believed by only a few.  Nevertheless, God has preserved it even through those who have not believed it.  For at all times in the monasteries and universities there have been disputations and lectures which dealt with the fact that Christ the Lord, born of Mary, is true man and God.  But it went no further than saying and hearing it.  But this belief is held by the devil too and the Turks and all the godless among Christians, and is the kind of belief which everybody believes that it is true but would not die for it, as Eck and many others show today.  If they had as much from Christ and the teaching of the gospel as from the devil, they would also think as much of Christ. The Turk too admits that Christ was born of the Virgin Mary, that Mary was an immaculate virgin, and that Christ was more than a man; but the Word of God, as it is given in the gospel, he denies, and yet I fear that the Turk believes more of this article than does the pope.  Therefore it is a high article to believe that this infant, born of Mary, is true God; for nobody’s reason can ever accept the fact that he who created heaven and earth and is adored by angels was born of a virgin.  That is the article.  Nobody believes it except he who also knows this faith, namely, that this child is the Lord and Savior.

But for whom was he born and whose Lord and Savior is he?  The angels declare that he was born Lord and Savior.  The Turks, the pope, and the scholars say the same thing, but only to the extent that it brings in money and honor.  But that anyone could say, “to you is born,” as the angel says, this is the faith which we must preach about.  But we cannot preach about it as we would like to do.  Indeed, who could ever grasp [the full meaning of] these words of the evangelist: “a Savior, who is the Lord,” and, “to you”!  I know well enough how to talk about it and what to believe about it, just as others do.  So there are many who have this belief and do it, just as others do.  So there are many who have this belief and do not doubt this first belief that Christ is the Lord, the Savior, and the virgin’s Son.  This I too have never doubted.  But if these words are planted no higher than my thoughts, then they have no firm roots.  We are certain that this was proclaimed by the angel, but the firm faith does not follow.  For the reason does not understand both sides of this faith, first that Christ is a man, but also the Savior and Lord or King.  This needs to be revealed from heaven.  One who really has the first faith also has the other.

Who, then, are those to whom this joyful news is to be proclaimed?  Those who are faint-hearted and feel the burden of their sins, like the shepherds, to whom the angels proclaim the message, letting the great lords in Jerusalem, who do not accept it, go on sleeping.  Beyond the first faith there must be the second faith, that Christ is not only the virgin’s Son, but also the Lord of angels and the Savior of men.  The words anyone can understand, antisacramentarians, fanatics, sectarians, and Turks; but they do not proceed from the heart they come only from hearing and go no farther than hearing.  This is not faith, however, but only a memory of what has been heard, that one knows that he has heard it.  Nobody ventures upon it, so as to stake goods, life, and honor upon it.  And yet we must preach it for the sake of those who are in the multitude to whom the angel preached.

This is our theology, which we preach in order that we may understand what the angel wants.  Mary bore the child, took it to her breast and nursed it, and the Father in heaven has his Son, lying in the manger and the mother’s lap.  Why did God do all this?  Why does Mary guard the child as a mother should?  And reason answers:  in order that we may make an idol of her, that honor may be paid to the mother.  Mary becomes all this without her knowledge and consent, and all the songs and glory and honor are addressed to the mother.  And yet the text does not sound forth the honor of the mother, for the angel says, “I bring to you good news of great joy; for to you is born this day the Savior” [Luke 2:10-11].  I am to accept the child and his birth and forget the mother, as far as this is possible, although her part cannot be forgotten, for where there is a birth there must also be a mother.  Nevertheless, we dare not put our faith in the mother but only in the fact that the child was born.  And the angel desired that we should see nothing but the child which is born, just as the angels themselves, as though they were blind, saw nothing but the child born of the virgin, and desired that all created things should be as nothing compared with this child, that we should see nothing, be it harps, gold, goods, honor, power, and the like which we would prefer before their message.  For if I received even the costliest and the best in the world, it still does not have the name of Savior.  And if the Turk were ten times stronger than he is, he could not for one moment save me from my infirmity, to say nothing of the peril of death, and even less from the smallest sin or from death itself.  In my sin, my death, I must take leave of all created things.  No, sun, moon, stars, all creatures, physicians, emperors, kings, wise men and potentates cannot help me.  When I die I shall see nothing but black darkness, and yet that light, “To you is born this day the Savior” [Luke 2:11], remains in my eyes and fills all heaven and earth.  The Savior will help me when all have forsaken me.  And when the heavens and the stars and all creatures stare at me with horrible mien, I see nothing in heaven and earth but this child.  So great should that light which declares that he is my Savior become in my eyes that I can say:  Mary, you did not bear this child for yourself alone.  The child is not yours; you did not bring him forth for yourself, but for me, even though you are his mother, even though you held him in your arms and wrapped him in swaddling clothes and picked him up and laid him down.  But I have a greater honor than your honor as his mother.  For your honor pertains to your motherhood of the body of the child, but my honor is this, that you have my treasure, so that I know none, neither men nor angels, who can help me except this child whom you, O Mary, hold in your arms.  If a man could put out of his mind all that he is and has except this child, and if for him everything—money, goods, power, or honor—fades into darkness and he despises everything on earth compared with this child, so that heaven with its stars and earth with all its power and all its treasures becomes nothing to him, that man would have the true gain and fruit of this message of the angel.  And for us the time must come when suddenly all will be darkness and we shall know nothing but this message of the angel:  “I bring to you good news of great joy; for to you is born this day the Savior” [Luke 2:10-11].

This, then, is the faith we preach, of which the Turks and the pope and all the sectarians know nothing.  The fanatics do, it is true, snatch to themselves the words of the angels, but how earnest they are is plain to see.  For they receive the Word only as a piece of paper, as the cup and corporal receive the body and blood of Christ.  The paper does no more than contain something and pass it on to others, but yet it remains paper.  Thus you copy something from one paper on another paper; from my tongue the Word sounds in your ear, but it does not go to the heart.  So they receive this greatest of treasures to their great harm and still think they are Christians, just as though the paper were to say: I certainly have in me the written words, “to you is born this day the Savior”; therefore I shall be saved.  But then the fire comes and burns up the paper.

Therefore this is the chief article, which separates us from all the heathen, that you, O man, may not only learn that Christ, born of the virgin, is the Lord and Savior, but also accept the fact that he is your Lord and Savior, that you may be able to boast in your hear:  I hear the Word that sounds from heaven and says:  This child who is born of the virgin is not only his mother’s son.  I have more than the mother’s estate; he is more mine than Mary’s, for he was born for me, for the angel said, “To you” is born the Savior.  Then ought you to say, Amen, I thank thee, dear Lord.

But then reason says:  Who knows?  I believe that Christ, born of the virgin, is the Lord and Savior and he may perhaps help Peter and Paul, but for me, a sinner, he was not born.  But even if you believed that much, it would still not be enough, unless there were added to it the faith that he was born for you.  For he was not born merely in order that I should honor the mother, that she should be praised because he was born of the virgin mother.  This honor belongs to none except her and it is not to be despised, for the angel said, “Blessed are you among women!” [Luke 1:28].  But it must not be too highly esteemed lest one deny what is written here:  “To you is born this day the Savior.”  He was not merely concerned to be born of a virgin; it was infinitely more than that.  It was this, as she herself sings in the Magnificat:  “He has helped his servant Israel” [Luke 1:54]; not that he was born of me and my virginity but born for you and for your benefit, not only for my honor.

Take yourself in hand, examine yourself and see whether you are a Christian!  If you can sing:  The Son, who is proclaimed to be a Lord and Savior, is my Savior; and if you can confirm the message of the angel and say yes to it and believe it in your heart, then your heart will be filled with such assurance and joy and confidence, and you will not worry much about even the costliest and best that this world has to offer.  For when I can speak to the virgin from the bottom of my heart and say: O Mary, noble, tender virgin, you have borne a child; this I want more than robes and guldens, yea, more than my body and life; then you are closer to the treasure than everything else in heaven and earth, as Ps. 73 [:25] says, “There is nothing upon earth that I desire besides thee.”  You see how a person rejoices when he receives a robe or ten guldens.  But how many are there who shout and jump for joy when they hear the message of the angel:  “To you is born this day the Savior?”  Indeed, the majority look upon it as a sermon that must be preached, and when they have heard it, consider it a trifling thing, and go away just as they were before.  This shows that we have neither the first nor the second faith.  We do not believe that the virgin mother bore a son and that he is the Lord and Savior unless, added to this, I believe the second thing, namely, that he is my Savior and Lord.  When I can say:  This I accept as my own, because the angel meant it for me, then, if I believe it in my heart, I shall not fail to love the mother Mary, and even more then child, and especially the Father.  For, if it is true that the child was born of the virgin and is mine, then I have no angry God and I must know the feel that there is nothing but laughter and joy in the heart of the Father and no sadness in my heart.  For, if what the angel says is true, that he is our Lord and Savior, what can sin do against us?  “If God is for us, who is against us?” [Rom. 8:31].  Greater words than these I cannot speak, nor all the angels and even the Holy Spirit, as is sufficiently testified by the beautiful and devout songs that have been made about it.  I do not trust myself to express it.  I most gladly hear you sing and speak of it, but as long as no joy is there, so long is faith still weak or even nonexistent, and you still do not believe the angel.

You can see what our papists and Junkers, who have chosen innumerable saviors, have felt about this faith.  Indeed, the papists still want to retain the mass, the invocation of saints, and their invented works by which we are to be saved.  This is as much as to say, I do not believe in the Savior and Lord whom Mary bore; and yet they sing the words of the angel, hold their triple masses [at Christmas] and play their organs.  They speak the words with their tongues but their heart has another savior.  And the same is true in the monasteries:  if you want to be saved, remember to keep the rule and regulations of Francis and you will have a gracious God!  And at the Diet of Augsburg they decided to stick to this.  In the name of all of the devils, let them stick there!  It has been said sufficiently that this Savior lies in the manger.  But if there is any other thing that saves me, then I rightly call it my savior.  If the sun, moon, and stars save, I can call them saviors.  If St. Bartholomew or St Anthony or a pilgrimage to St. James or good works save, then they surely are my savior.  If St. Francis, then he is my savior.  But then what is left of the honor of the child who was born this day, whom the angel calls Lord and Savior, and who wants to keep his name, which is Savior and Christ the Lord.  If I set up any savior except this child, no matter who or what it is or is called, then he is not the Savior.  But the text says that he is the Savior.  And if this is true—and it is the truth—then let everything else go.

One who hears the message of the angel and believes it will be filled with fear, like the shepherds.  True, it is too high for me to believe that I should come into this treasure without any merit on my part.  And yet, so it must be.  In the papacy this message was not preached in the pulpit, and I am afraid that it will disappear again.  It was the other message that the devil initiated and has allowed to remain in the papacy.  All their hymns are to this effect.  Among the Turks the devil has completely wiped it out.  Therefore, remember it, sing it, and learn it, while there is still time!  I fear that the time will come when we shall not be allowed to hear, believe, and sing this message in public, and the time has already come when it is no longer understood; though Satan does not allow it to be spoken with the mouth, as the papists do.  But when it comes to declaring that he is born for you and to singing:

In dulci jubilo
Now sing with hearts aglow!
Our delight and pleasure
Lies in praesepio
Like sunshine is our treasure
Matris in gremio
Alpha est et O!

—this he is unwilling to allow.

What we have said, then, has been about that second faith, which is not only to believe in Mary’s Son, but rather that he who lies in the virgin’s lap is our Savior, that you accept this and give thanks to God, who so loved you that he gave you a Savior who is yours.  And for a sign he sent the angel from heaven to proclaim him, in order that nothing else should be preached except that this child is the Savior and far better than heaven and earth.  Him, therefore, we should acknowledge and accept; confess him as our Savior in every need, call upon him, and never doubt that he will save us from all misfortune.  Amen.


Bibliografi

1http://www.mcm.edu/~eppleyd/Luther%27s%20Christmas%20sermon,%201530.html; akses 8/5/2015 13:26

 

Paus Leo 1 (360-461) mengkontra perayaan Sol

Disinformasi

Khotbah Paus Leo 1 (390-461) membuktikan Natal berasal dari perayaan pagan Roma.

Sebenarnya….

Sebaliknya, khotbah Paus Leo 1 pada abad 5 Masehi tanggal 25 Desember justru membuktikan Natal tidak berasal dari perayaan pagan Roma kuno, sebab khotbah itu menentang dan melawan perayaan dewa Sol itu. Silakan baca perlawanan Paus Leo 1 terhadap perayaan Pagan itu dalam kutipan khotbahnya berikut ini:

IV. The Foolish Practice of Some Who Turn to the Sun and Bow to It is Reprehensible
From such a system of teaching proceeds also the ungodly practice of certain foolish folk who worship the sun as it rises at the beginning of daylight from elevated positions: even some Christians think it is so proper to do this that, before entering the blessed Apostle Peter’s basilica, which is dedicated to the One Living and true God, when they have mounted the steps which lead to the raised platform, they turn round and bow themselves towards the rising sun and with bent neck do homage to its brilliant orb. We are full of grief and vexation that this should happen, which is partly due to the fault of ignorance and partly to the spirit of heathenism: because although some of them do perhaps worship the Creator of that fair light rather than the Light itself, which is His creature, yet we must abstain even flora the appearance of this observance: for if one who has abandoned the worship of gods, finds it in our own worship, will he not hark back again to this fragment of his old superstition, as if it were allowable, when he sees it to be common both to Christians and to infidels?

V. The Sun and Moon Were Created for Use, Not for Worship
This objectionable practice must be given up therefore by the faithful, and the honour due to God alone must not be mixed up with those men’s rites who serve their fellow-creatures. For the divine Scripture says: “Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve.” Anti the blessed Job, “a man without complaint,” as the Lord says, “and one that eschews every evil,” said, “Have I seen the sun when it shone or the moon walking brightly, and my heart hath rejoiced in secret, and I have kissed my hand: what is my great iniquity and denial against the most High God?” But what is the sun or what is the moon but elements of visible creation and material light: one of which is of greater brightness and the other of lesser light? For as it is now day time and now night time, so the Creator has constituted divers kinds of luminaries, although even before they were made there had been days without the sun and nights without the moon. But these were fashioned to serve in making man, that he who is an animal endowed with reason might be sure of the distinction of the months, the recurrence of the year, and the variety of the seasons, since through the unequal length of the various periods, and the clear indications given by the changes in its risings, the sun doses the year and the moon renews the months. For on the fourth day, as we read, God said: “Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven, and let them shine upon the earth, and let them divide between day and night, and let them be for signs and for seasons, and for days and years, and let them be in the firmament of heaven that they may shine upon earth.”1

Khotbah Natal Paus disampaikan pada tanggal 25 Desember. Maka, khotbah itu disiapkan atau disusun beberapa hari sebelum tanggal 25 Desember. Dengan demikian, peristiwa yang diceritakan oleh Paus Leo 1 terjadi sebelum tanggal 25 Desember.

Kronologinya,

  1. ??? Desember ➡ Paus melihat fenomena perayaan Pagan.
  2. ??? – 24 Desember ➡ Paus menyusun khotbah yang menceritakan fenomena itu dan menentang praktek itu.
  3. 25 Desember ➡ Paus menyampaikan khotbah yang telah disusunnya beberapa hari sebelumnya.

Fenomena yang dikisahkan oleh Paus itu terjadi tanggal berapa???

Bukti menunjukkan, Winter Solstice abad 5 Masehi berlangsung tanggal 19 atau 20 Desember. Pada saat Winter Solstice, dilakukan perayaan Dewa Sol. Maka, fenomena yang dikisahkan oleh Paus Leo 1 itu berlangsung pada tanggal 19 atau 20 Desember abad 5 Masehi Kalender Julian.

Kronologinya,

  1. 19 – 20 Desember ➡ Paus melihat fenomena perayaan Pagan.
  2. 20 – 24 Desember ➡ Paus menyusun khotbah yang menceritakan fenomena itu dan menentang praktek itu.
  3. 25 Desember ➡ Paus menyampaikan khotbah yang telah disusunnya beberapa hari sebelumnya.

tinjuKhotbah Paus Leo 1 yang ke 27 ini bukti bahwa pada abad 5 Masehi, Perayaan Natal dan Perayaan Pagan Dewa Sol berada pada posisi berlawanan.

Simpulan

  1. Winter Solstice abad 5 Masehi terjadi pada tanggal 19/ 20 Desember.
  2. Natal abad 5 Masehi terjadi pada tanggal 25 Desember.
  3. Perayaan Natal 25 Desember berada pada posisi yang berlawanan dengan Perayaan Dewa Sol pada 19/20 Desember abad 5 Masehi.

 


Bibliografi

1http://www.ancient-future.net/leosermonxxvii.html; akses 7/5/2015 13:24

Para pendiri Protestantisme tentang Natal 25 Desember

Disinformasi

Pada masa Reformasi, banyak orang Kristen yang mulai menyebut Hari Natal sebagai hari raya kafir karena mengikutsertakan kebiasaan tanpa dasar keagamaan yang sah.1

Sebenarnya….

Pada kenyataannya, para bapak pendiri mazhab Protestantisme memperingati, merayakan, dan memelihara Natal 25 Desember.

  1. Martin Luther (1483-1546)
    Martin Luther memperingati/ merayakan Natal, bahkan dia menyampaikan khotbah Natal pada hari Natal 25 Desember 1530.2 Martin Luther bahkan menyebut “Hari ini, Kristus lahir” sebanyak 3 kali dalam khotbahnya itu.

    Martin Luther dan keluarga saat Natal abad 16 Masehi.
    Martin Luther dan keluarga saat Natal abad 16 Masehi.
  2. William Tyndale (1494-1536)
    William Tyndale menyebut hari Natal sebagai “holy days” (pada tahun tersebut, kata ‘holy days’ berarti: hari-hari yang kudus) dan menyebutnya sebagai “hari yang mengobarkan iman”3
  3. Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)
    Ulrich Zwingli mengajarkan, semua hari raya dihapuskan kecuali Natal, Jumat Agung, Paskah, dan Pentakosta.4
  4. John Calvin (1509-1564)
    John Calvin secara eksplisit menyatakan memelihara Natal seperti yang biasa dilakukan orang.5 Kebiasaan pada masa itu, Natal dirayakan pada tanggal 25 Desember. Maka, Calvin pun memelihara Natal 25 Desember. Ini di kemudian hari jadi titik pembeda antara Calvinist dan Puritan. (Puritan dianggap mengikuti Calvin. Faktanya, Calvin memelihara Natal 25 Desember, sedangkan Puritan menolak Natal 25 Desember. Kontras. Maka, Puritan bukan Calvinist.)

Klaim dan gambaran bahwa para pendiri Protestantisme itu anti-Natal 25 Desember ternyata bertentangan dengan bukti-bukti sejarah yang bertahan hingga saat ini. Pada abad 16 dimana Protestantisme lahir, opini bahwa Natal berasal dari pagan belum populer, walau sudah ada. Opini ini mulai menyeruak pada abad 17, tepatnya tahun 1687, dalam buku “A Testimony” Bab III paragraf 16 dan dipopulerkan ke seluruh dunia oleh Paul Ernst Jablonski pada abad 18 Masehi.

Mengenai dasar keagamaan yang sah untuk perayaan Natal, silakan simak dalam “Perintah untuk merayakan dan memperingati Natal“.

Simpulan

  1. Para Bapak Pendiri mazhab Protestantisme memelihara, memperingati, dan merayakan Natal, seperti yang biasa dilakukan orang.
  2. Teknik produksi disinformasi:
    1. Opini tanpa bukti
    2. Mengabaikan bukti
    3. Klaim tanpa dasar

Bibliografi

1http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sejarah_budaya_Natal; akses 5/5/2015 20:46

2http://www.mcm.edu/~eppleyd/Luther%27s%20Christmas%20sermon,%201530.html; akses 5/5/2015 1931.

3http://id.scribd.com/doc/208293505/Did-William-Tyndale-Celebrate-Christmas#scribd; akses 5/5/2015 20:12

Tyndale called Christian festivals not heathenism, but holy, and also “sacramental” because “they stir up our weak faith.” Further, Tyndale did not hesitate to call Christmas ‘Christmas’….

4http://www.christianchronicler.com/history1/zwinglian_revolt.html; 5/5/2015 20:24

5http://www.rbvincent.com/BibleStudies/calvinxmas.htm; akses 5/5/2015 20:34

Since my recall, I have pursued the moderate course of keeping Christ’s birth-day as you are wont to do.

6http://www.covenanter.org/IMather/increasemathertestimony.htm; akses 6/5/2015 1:19

It was in compliance with the Pagan Saturnalia that Christ-mass Holy-days were first invented. The manner of Christ-mass-keeping, as generally observed, is highly dishonourable to the Name of Christ.

Catatan tentang Natal sebelum 336 M

Disinformasi

Catatan pertama peringatan hari Natal adalah tahun 336 Sesudah Masehi pada kalender Romawi kuno, yaitu pada tanggal 25 Desember.1

Sebenarnya….

Bukti-bukti menunjukkan Natal Kristus alias Milad Al-Masih telah dirayakan dan diperingati ratusan tahun sebelum tahun 336 Masehi.

Bukti-bukti tersebut meliputi:

 

Berdasarkan perhitungan Injil, Milad Al Masih tanggal 25 Desember kalender Julian dihitung 9 bulan semenjak Maryam hamil pada tanggal 25 Maret kalender Julian atau tanggal 17 Nisan kalender Ibrani. Sedangkan tanggal kehamilan Maryam dihitung 6 bulan semenjak tanggal kehamilan Elisabet. Tanggal kehamilan Elisabet diperhitungkan berdasarkan tanggal kunjungan malaikat Jibril kepada Zakharia.

Simpulan

Disinformasi bahwa Natal 25 Desember baru dilakukan sejak tahun 336 M berlawanan dengan bukti-bukti yang tersedia.


Bibliografi

1http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sejarah_budaya_Natal; akses 2/5/2015 12:13

 

Natal 25 Desember sebelum Paus Liberius

Disinformasi

Paus Liberius (? - 366)
Paus Liberius (? – 366)

Peringatan Natal baru tercetus antara tahun 325 – 354 oleh Paus Liberius, yang ditetapkan tanggal 25 Desember, sekaligus menjadi momentum penyembahan Dewa Matahari. Oleh Kaisar Konstantin, tanggal 25 Desember tersebut akhirnya disahkan sebagai kelahiran Yesus (Natal).

Sebenarnya….

Fitnah dalam disinformasi tersebut berlawanan dengan bukti:

Berdasarkan perhitungan Injil, Milad Al Masih tanggal 25 Desember kalender Julian dihitung 9 bulan semenjak Maryam hamil pada tanggal 25 Maret kalender Julian atau tanggal 17 Nisan kalender Ibrani. Sedangkan tanggal kehamilan Maryam dihitung 6 bulan semenjak tanggal kehamilan Elisabet. Tanggal kehamilan Elisabet diperhitungkan berdasarkan tanggal kunjungan malaikat Jibril kepada Zakharia.

Simpulan

Disinformasi bahwa Natal 25 Desember baru dilakukan sejak Paus Liberius berlawanan dengan bukti-bukti yang tersedia, khususnya bukti dari era sebelum Paus Liberius yang menunjukkan Natal 25 Desember diperingati/ dirayakan dari ratusan tahun sebelum Paus Liberius.

Kronografi 354 Masehi: Natal Kristus 25 Desember

 

Hiasan pada kronografi/ kalender tahun 354 M pada halaman bulan desember.
Hiasan pada kronografi/ kalender tahun 354 M pada halaman bulan desember.

Kronografi adalah kalender kuno Rumawi. Kalender 354 ini mendaftar tempat-tempat pemakaman para martir umat Kristus Barat (Depositio martyrum). Urutan hari peringatan para martir tersebut tersusun dimulai dari tanggal Natal Kristus. Dalam Bagian 6: Kalender Filocalian tercantum:

VIII Kal. Ian. Natus Christus in Betleem Judeae

8 hari sebelum Kalender Januari Natal Kristus in Betlehem, Yudea

Dengan menggunakan cara perhitungan kuno, maka 8 hari sebelum kalender Januari Natal Kristus di Betlehem Yudea adalah tanggal 25 Desember.

Hari ke- Tanggal
1 1 Januari
2 31 Desember
3 30 Desember
4 29 Desember
5 28 Desember
6 27 Desember
7 26 Desember
8 25 Desember

Menariknya lagi, kronografi 354 tidak menyebut Natalis Solis Invicti, melainkan menyebutkan Natalis Invicti. “Natalis Solis Invicti” berarti hari lahir dewa matahari yang tak terkalahkan, sedangkan “Natalis Invicti” berarti hari lahir dia yang tak terkalahkan. “invicti” berasal dari kata “invictus” yakni kata umum yang dapat ditujukan kepada siapa saja yang tidak pernah kalah.

Dalam kaitannya dengan kalimat “Natus Christus in Betleem Judeae”, maka kata “invictus” ditujukan kepada Yesus Kristus, karena Allah membangkitkan Yesus Kristus sehingga hidup kembali dari wafatnya. Dengan demikian, Yesus Kristus adalah dia yang tak terkalahkan oleh kematian. Selain itu, Kronografi 354 pun menceritakan bahwa Hari Raya Dewa Matahari dirayakan pada tanggal 28 Agustus dan 19-22 Oktober, bukan 25 Desember.

Hingga tahun 354 Masehi, tidak ada bukti materi yang mendukung opini bahwa Sol Invictus atau Natalis Solis Invicti dirayakan tanggal 25 Desember. Malah, berlawanan dengan opini itu, bukti menunjukkan, Winter Solstice abad 1-4 Masehi tidak pernah jatuh tanggal 25 Desember. Artinya, Natalis Solis Invicti jatuh tanggal 25 Desember itu cuma opini nir bukti, kata tanpa fakta.

Simpulan

  1. Natalis Invicti merujuk Natalis Christi Invicti, bukan Natalis Solis Invicti. Kata “Invicti” merujuk pada Isa Al-Masih, bukan Sol.
  2. Kronografi 354 sinkron dengan bukti-bukti sebelumnya, bahwa Natal Kristus, Milad Al-Masih, jatuh pada tanggal 25 Desember.

Nikēphoros tentang Diocletian (244–311 M): Natal 25 Desember

Artifak: Koin Romawi jaman Diokletian. Koin ini diperkirakan dari tahun 294 M.
Artifak: Koin Romawi jaman Diokletian. Koin ini diperkirakan dari tahun 294 M.

Dalam tulisannya, Nikēphoros atau Nicephorus (Νικηφόρος) menulis sejarah umat Al-Masih yang mengalami penghancuran tempat ibadah dan pembantaian massal. Peristiwa penghancuran tersebut dilakukan oleh Diocletian, saat umat Kristus atau umat Al-Masih sedang merayakan Natal Kristus:

“Di Nikomedia (sebuah kota Bethenia) ketika hari raya Natal Kristus datang, dan banyak umat Kristus di segala usia telah berkumpul bersama di tempat ibadah untuk merayakan Natal itu, Diocletian Sang Tiran mendapat kesempatan menguntungkan saat ia mungkin mencapai kegilaan dan kemarahannya, ia mengirim pasukannya ke sana untuk mengunci tempat ibadah itu, dan api itu memakan mereka semua habis menjadi abu, bahkan dua puluh ribu orang.”

 Selden (The anthropos, hal 33, 34) mengkonfirmasi laporan Nikēphoros itu dan mengatakan bahwa dalam Martirologi Yunani dan Romawi kuno peristiwa ini terjadi pada tanggal 25 Desember.


 

Hippolytus (225 Masehi): Natal 25 Desember

Ἡ γὰρ πρώτη παρουσία τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν ἡ ἔνσαρκος, ἐν ᾗ γεγέννηται ἐν Βηθλεέμ, ἐγένετο πρὸ ὀκτὼ καλανδῶν ἰανουαρίων, ἡμέρᾳ τετράδι, βασιλεύοντος Αὐγούστου τεσσαρακοστὸν καὶ δεύτερον ἔτος, ἀπὸ δὲ Ἀδὰμ πεντακισχιλιοστῷ καὶ πεντακοσιοστῷ ἔτει ἔ

Ē gar prōtē parūsia tū kuriū ēmōn hē ensarkos, en hē gegennētai en Bēthleem, egeneto pro oktō kalandōn ianūariōn, hēmera tetradi, basileuontos Augūstū tessarakoston kai deuteron etos, apo de Adam pentakiskhiliostō kai pentakosiostō etei e

“Untuk kedatangan pertama Junjungan kita dalam daging, ketika ia dilahirkan di Betlehem, delapan hari sebelum bulan pertama Januari, hari ke-4 dalam seminggu, sedangkan Augustus berada pada 42 tahun, tetapi dari Adam 5005 ratus tahun

Cara hitung Romawi kuno untuk “delapan hari sebelum bulan pertama Januari” adalah sebagai berikut:

Hippolitus
Hippolitus
  1. 1 Januari
  2. 31 Desember
  3. 30 Desember
  4. 29 Desember
  5. 28 Desember
  6. 27 Desember
  7. 26 Desember
  8. 25 Desember

Tulisan tersebut berasal dari buku Hippolytus (170-236 M ) yang berjudul “Komentar terhadap Kitab Daniel” pada sekitar tahun 225 Masehi atau 100 tahun sebelum berlangsungnya konsili Nicea (325 M ).

Tulisan Hippolytus menjadi penting karena profil Hippolytus yang memiliki jalur keguruan yang dekat dengan Yesus, yaitu cicit murid Yesus. Jalur keguruan Hippolytus hingga Yesus Kristus adalah:

Hippolytus murid Irenaeus, murid Polycarpus, murid Yohanes bin Zebedeus, murid Yesus Kristus

Tulisan Hippolytus tersebut membuktikan bahwa sekitar 100 tahun sebelum Konsili Nicea 325 M, umat Kristus telah memperingati Natal Kristus pada tanggal 25 Desember.